(d) A few particularities

Ship’s rail as delivery point. In Incoterms 2010, the “ship’s rail” as the point of delivery has been omitted in favour of the goods being considered as delivered when they are “on board”. This more accurately reflects commercial reality and avoids the rather dated image of the risk transferring across an imaginary line.

Terminal handling charges. The carriage costs sometimes include handling and moving the goods within a port or container terminal facility. The carrier or terminal operator may well charge these costs to the buyer who receives the goods. In these cases, the buyer must not be obliged to pay twice for the same service: once to the seller (as part of the total selling price) and once independently to the carrier or the terminal operator. The Incoterms 2010 rules seek to avoid this by clearly allocating these costs in paragraphs A6/B6 of the applicable Incoterm.

E-mails, etc. Articles A1/B1 of Incoterms 2010 give electronic means of communication the same effect as paper communication, as long as the parties so agree, or where such communication is customary.